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Ammonium benzoate



Human Health Effects:


Skin, Eye and Respiratory Irritations:
Irritating to eyes, skin, nose and throat.
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.] **PEER REVIEWED**


Emergency Medical Treatment:


Emergency Medical Treatment:
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The following Overview, *** BENZOATES ***, is relevant for this HSDB record chemical.

Life Support:
o   This overview assumes that basic life support measures
       have been instituted.
Clinical Effects:
0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
   0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  The primary effect expected from ingestion of moderate
         amounts of benzoates is gastrointestinal irritation.
         Benzoic acid is more irritating than benzoate salts.
         Large amounts may cause metabolic acidosis.
     B)  Although benzoic acid has been stated to produce
         salicylate-like toxicity in large amounts, these
         effects have not been well documented.
     C)  Ingestion of large amounts (1 g/kg/day) has been
         associated with metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, and
         hypocalcemia.
  0.2.7 NEUROLOGIC
   0.2.7.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Seizures have been reported to occur in animals
         receiving lethal doses.
  0.2.8 GASTROINTESTINAL
   0.2.8.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  The benzoates have a prominent irritating effect in
         large doses. Oral ingestion may produce gastric pain,
         nausea, and vomiting.
  0.2.9 HEPATIC
   0.2.9.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Benzoic acid may displace bilirubin from albumin and
         may result in elevated free bilirubin levels.
  0.2.10 GENITOURINARY
   0.2.10.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Renal tubular dysfunction has been reported.
  0.2.11 ACID-BASE
   0.2.11.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Metabolic acidosis and lactic acidosis have been
         reported following ingestion of large amounts.
  0.2.12 FLUID-ELECTROLYTE
   0.2.12.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Hypokalemia and hypocalcemia have been reported.
  0.2.14 DERMATOLOGIC
   0.2.14.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Non-immunological contact urticaria occurs following
         dermal exposure.
Laboratory:
A)  Serum benzoate levels, as well as acid-base status,
       electrolyte levels, and liver function tests should be
       monitored.
Treatment Overview:
0.4.2 ORAL EXPOSURE
    A)  DILUTION: Immediately dilute with 4 to 8 ounces (120 to
        240 mL) of water or milk (not to exceed 4 ounces/120 mL
        in a child).
    B)  ACTIVATED CHARCOAL: Administer charcoal as a slurry (240
        mL water/30 g charcoal). Usual dose: 25 to 100 g in
        adults/adolescents, 25 to 50 g in children (1 to 12
        years), and 1 g/kg in infants less than 1 year old.
    C)  Treatment is supportive and symptomatic.
    D)  ACIDOSIS - Administer sodium bicarbonate 1 to 2
        milliequivalents/kilogram intravenously; repeat as
        indicated by monitoring of acid-base status. Replace
        potassium deficits as required.
    E)  SEIZURES - Injectable diazepam contains 100 milligrams
        of benzoate per 10 milligrams of diazepam as a buffering
        agent. Phenobarbital or phenytoin may be preferable if
        seizures occur.
  0.4.4 EYE EXPOSURE
    A)  DECONTAMINATION: Irrigate exposed eyes with copious
        amounts of room temperature water for at least 15
        minutes. If irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or
        photophobia persist, the patient should be seen in a
        health care facility.
  0.4.5 DERMAL EXPOSURE
    A)  OVERVIEW
     1)  DECONTAMINATION: Remove contaminated clothing and wash
         exposed area thoroughly with soap and water. A
         physician may need to examine the area if irritation or
         pain persists.
     2)  Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs have been shown to
         prevent urticaria.
Range of Toxicity:
A)  Single oral doses of 6 grams of sodium benzoate are
       generally tolerated in adults; 1 to 1.5 grams may cause
       vomiting.
   B)  The maximum recommended dose in children is 500
       mg/kg/day; however, toxicity has been seen with 200
       mg/kg/day.
   C)  Toxic effects have been noted with serum levels greater
       than 80 mg/dL.

[Rumack BH POISINDEX(R) Information System Micromedex, Inc., Englewood, CO, 2012; CCIS Volume 154, edition expires Nov, 2012. Hall AH & Rumack BH (Eds): TOMES(R) Information System Micromedex, Inc., Englewood, CO, 2012; CCIS Volume 154, edition expires Nov, 2012.] **PEER REVIEWED**


Animal Toxicity Studies:


Non-Human Toxicity Excerpts:
AMMONIUM BENZOATE BLOCKS IMPULSE CONDUCTION IN FROG SCIATIC NERVES, BUT HAS NO LOCAL ANESTHETIC EFFECT ON RABBIT CORNEA.
[GUERRERO S ET AL; ARZNEIM-FORSCH 23 (7): 951-4 (1973)] **PEER REVIEWED**


Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics:


Interactions:
CONTINUOUS IP INJECTION OF AMMONIUM BENZOATE DECR LETHAL DOSE OF PROCAINE-HCL & LIDOCAINE-HCL IN MALE RATS.
[MOLGO J ET AL; ARCH BIOL MED EXP 9 (1/3): 50-2 (1973)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract


Pharmacology:


Therapeutic Uses:
Urinary anti-infective
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1989., p. 82] **PEER REVIEWED**


Interactions:
CONTINUOUS IP INJECTION OF AMMONIUM BENZOATE DECR LETHAL DOSE OF PROCAINE-HCL & LIDOCAINE-HCL IN MALE RATS.
[MOLGO J ET AL; ARCH BIOL MED EXP 9 (1/3): 50-2 (1973)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract


Environmental Fate & Exposure:


Environmental Standards & Regulations:


CERCLA Reportable Quantities:
Persons in charge of vessels or facilities are required to notify the National Response Center (NRC) immediately, when there is a release of this designated hazardous substance, in an amount equal to or greater than its reportable quantity of 5000 lb or 2270 kg. The toll free number of the NRC is (800) 424-8802; In the Washington D.C. metropolitan area (202) 426-2675. The rule for determining when notification is required is stated in 40 CFR 302.4 (section IV. D.3.b).
[54 FR 33419 (8/14/89)] **PEER REVIEWED**


Clean Water Act Requirements:
Designated as a hazardous substance under section 311(b)(2)(A) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act and further regulated by the Clean Water Act Amendments of 1977 and 1978. These regulations apply to discharges of this substance.
[40 CFR 116.4 (7/1/88)] **QC REVIEWED**


FDA Requirements:
Ammonium benzoate is an indirect food additive for use only as a component of adhesives.
[21 CFR 175.105 (4/1/90)] **PEER REVIEWED**

Ammonium benzoate for use as a preservative only is an indirect food additive for use only as a component of adhesives.
[21 CFR 175.105 (4/1/90)] **PEER REVIEWED**


Chemical/Physical Properties:


Molecular Formula:
C7-H6-O2.H3-N
**PEER REVIEWED**


Molecular Weight:
139.16
[U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety Health. Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS). National Library of Medicine's current MEDLARS file., p. 85/8401] **PEER REVIEWED**


Color/Form:
COLORLESS RHOMBIC CRYSTALS
[Weast, R.C. (ed.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 69th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1988-1989., p. B-69] **PEER REVIEWED**

LAMELLAR CRYSTALS OR CRYSTALLINE POWDER
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1989., p. 82] **PEER REVIEWED**


Odor:
ODORLESS OR FAINT BENZOIC ACID ODOR
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1989., p. 82] **PEER REVIEWED**


Boiling Point:
160 DEG C (SUBLIMES)
[Weast, R.C. (ed.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 69th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1988-1989., p. B-69] **PEER REVIEWED**


Melting Point:
198 DEG C (DECOMP)
[Weast, R.C. (ed.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 69th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1988-1989., p. B-69] **PEER REVIEWED**


Density/Specific Gravity:
1.260
[Weast, R.C. (ed.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 69th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1988-1989., p. B-69] **PEER REVIEWED**


pH:
AQ SOLN IS SLIGHTLY ACID
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1989., p. 82] **PEER REVIEWED**


Solubilities:
IN WATER: 19.6 G/100 CC @ 14.5 DEG C, 83.3 G/100 CC @ 100 DEG C; IN ALCOHOL: 1.63 G/100 CC @ 25 DEG C; INSOL IN ETHER
[Weast, R.C. (ed.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 69th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1988-1989., p. B-69] **PEER REVIEWED**

1 G DISSOLVES IN 8 ML GLYCEROL
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1989., p. 82] **PEER REVIEWED**


Chemical Safety & Handling:


Skin, Eye and Respiratory Irritations:
Irritating to eyes, skin, nose and throat.
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.] **PEER REVIEWED**


Hazardous Reactivities & Incompatibilities:
INCOMPATIBILITIES: INCOMPATIBLE /WITH/ FERRIC SALTS, ACIDS, ALKALI HYDROXIDES OR CARBONATES.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1989., p. 82] **PEER REVIEWED**


Protective Equipment & Clothing:
Wear goggles and self-contained breathing apparatus.
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.] **PEER REVIEWED**


Preventive Measures:
Remove contaminated clothing and shoes.
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.] **PEER REVIEWED**

SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. Contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning.
**PEER REVIEWED**

SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
**PEER REVIEWED**


Stability/Shelf Life:
GRADUALLY LOSES AMMONIA ON EXPOSURE TO AIR.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1989., p. 82] **PEER REVIEWED**


Storage Conditions:
KEEP WELL CLOSED.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1989., p. 82] **PEER REVIEWED**


Occupational Exposure Standards:


Manufacturing/Use Information:


Major Uses:
INDUSTRIAL PRESERVATIVE FOR PAPER WRAPPERS; AGENT FOR REDUCING CURING TIME IN VULCANIZATION OF RUBBER; EXPECTORANT USED FOR CHRONIC BRONCHITIS; ANALYTICAL REAGENT FOR VARIOUS ELEMENTS.
[SRI] **PEER REVIEWED**

To preserve glue and latex.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1989., p. 82] **PEER REVIEWED**

MEDICATION   (See also: Therapeutic Uses)
**PEER REVIEWED**


Manufacturers:
Whittaker Corporation, Hq, 10880 Wilshire Blvd, Los Angeles, CA 90024, (213) 475-9411; Chemicals Group; Heico Division; Production site: Route 611, Delaware Water Gap, PA 18327
[SRI. 1989 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1989., p. 460] **QC REVIEWED**

ALFA Products, Morton Thiokol Inc, 152 Andover St, Danvers, MA 01923, (617) 777-1970.
[McCurdy, P.P. (ed.). Chemical Week Buyer's Guide '88. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Inc., 1988., p. 144] **QC REVIEWED**


Methods of Manufacturing:
FROM BENZOIC ACID AND AMMONIA.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1989., p. 82] **PEER REVIEWED**


General Manufacturing Information:
CMPDS CONTAINING AMMONIUM BENZOATE ARE USED AS NEMATOCIDES, INSECTICIDES, FUNGICIDES & BACTERICIDES.
[BURT LE ET AL; PESTICIDAL COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING A HYDRAZINIUM SALT, FORMALDEHYDE, AND AMMONIUM BENZOATE; FR DEMANDE PATENT NUMBER 2156167 06/29/73] **PEER REVIEWED**

Cmpd containing 0.025-0.250 ammonium benzoate and 0.025-0.250 wt % potassium oleate, and water are effective fungicides.
[Gerasimenko AA; Fungistatic composition for protecting equipment and structure; USSR Patent No 965414 10/15/82] **PEER REVIEWED**


Formulations/Preparations:
IT IS ABOUT 99% PURE.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1989., p. 82] **PEER REVIEWED**


U. S. Production:
(1975) PROBABLY GREATER THAN 9.08X10+5 GRAMS
[SRI] **PEER REVIEWED**


Laboratory Methods:


Analytic Laboratory Methods:
Method 417G: Automated Phenate Method for the determination of ammonia nitrogen. This method is used to determine ammonia concentrations in potable, surface, and Saline waters as well as domestic and industrial wastewaters over a range of 0.02 to 2.0 mg/l. Photometric measurement is made at 630 to 660 nm. For ammonia concentrations of 1.41, 0.77, 0.59, and 0.43 mg/l, the standard deviation was + 0.005 or -0.005. /Ammonia/
[Franson MA (Ed); Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. P 388-90 (1985)] **PEER REVIEWED**

Method 417E Ammonia: Selective Electrode Method. This method is applicable for the measurement of 0.03 to 1400 mg nitrogen ammonia/l in potable and surface waters and domestic and industrial wastes. The ammonia selective electrode uses a hydrophobic gas permeable membrane to separate the sample solution from an electrode internal solution of ammonium chloride. Ammonia diffuses through the membrane and changes the internal solution pH, which is sensed by a pH electrode. In an inter-laboratory study (12 laboratories) using effluent water samples at 0.04, 0.10, 0.80, 20, 100, and 750 mg/l, mean recovery was 100, 470, 105, 95, 97, and 99%, respectively. /Ammonia/
[Franson MA (Ed); Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater p.384-6 (1985)] **PEER REVIEWED**

Method 417D: Titrimetric Method for the Determination of Ammonia Nitrogen. This method is applicable to ammonia concentrations in wastewater effluent greater than 5 mg/l. After distillation, the sample is titrated with 0.02 N sulfuric acid until a lavender color forms. For concentrations of 200, 800, and 1500 ug/l, relative standard deviation is 69.8, 28.6, and 21.6% respectively, and relative error is 20.0, 5.0, and 2.6%, respectively. /Ammonia/
[Franson MA (Ed); Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater p.383-4 (1985)] **PEER REVIEWED**

Method 417C: Phenate Method for the Determination of Ammonia Nitrogen. This manual colorimetric technique is used to determine ammonia concentrations in wastewater effluent from 10 to 500 ug/l. The blue compound, indophenol, is formed by the reaction of ammonia, hypochlorite, and phenol catalyzed by a manganous salt. For ammonia concentrations of 200, 800, and 1500 ug/l, relative standard deviation is 39.2, 15.8, and 26.0%, respectively, and relative error is 2.4, 1.5, and 10.0%, respectively. /Ammonia/
[Franson MA (Ed); Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater p.383-3 (1985)] **PEER REVIEWED**

Method 417B: Nesslerization Method (Direct and Following Distillation) for the Determination of Ammonia Nitrogen. Direct Nesslerization is used for purified drinking waters, natural water, and highly purified wastewater effluents. This colorimetric method is sensitive to 20 ug/l. Interferences such as turbidity, color, and precipitates are corrected through distillation. At ammonia nitrogen concentrations of 200, 800, and 1500 ug/l, relative standard deviation is 38.1, 11.2, and 11.6%, respectively and relative error is 0, 0, and 0.6%, respectively. /Ammonia/
[Franson MA (Ed); Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater p.379-82 (1985)] **PEER REVIEWED**

NIOSH Method 6701: Analyte: Ammonium Ion; Matrix: Air; Technique: Ion chromatography, conductivity detection; estimated limit of detection: 1 ug/sample; Precision: 0.043; range: 2 to 110 ug/sample. /Ammonia/
[U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 3rd ed. Volumes 1 and 2 with 1985 supplement, and revisions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, February 1984., p. 6701] **PEER REVIEWED**

NIOSH Method 205 Analyte: Ammonia; Matrix: Air; Procedure: Colormetric. This method has a sensitivity of 0.002 mg. The range of application of this method is 0.10 mg to 0.80 mg of ammonium in a 10 liter air sample. /Ammonia/
[U.S. Department of Health, Education Welfare, Public Health Service. Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety Health. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. 2nd ed. Volumes 1-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977-present., p. 205] **PEER REVIEWED**


Sampling Procedures:
Ammonia is collected in a dilute sulfuric acid solution in a midget impinger to form ammonium sulfate. Personal sampling pump is to draw the air at a flow rate of 1 liter/min for 10 to 15 minutes. /Ammonia/
[U.S. Department of Health, Education Welfare, Public Health Service. Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety Health. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. 2nd ed. Volumes 1-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977-present., p. 205] **PEER REVIEWED**


Special References:


Synonyms and Identifiers:


Synonyms:
BENZOIC ACID, AMMONIUM SALT
**PEER REVIEWED**

VULNOC AB
**PEER REVIEWED**


Formulations/Preparations:
IT IS ABOUT 99% PURE.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1989., p. 82] **PEER REVIEWED**


Standard Transportation Number:
49 663 04; Ammonium benzoate


Administrative Information:


Hazardous Substances Databank Number: 555

Last Revision Date: 20030124

Last Review Date: Reviewed by SRP on 02/07/1991

Update History:
Complete Update on 01/24/2003, 1 field added/edited/deleted.
Complete Update on 08/06/2002, 1 field added/edited/deleted.
Complete Update on 01/14/2002, 1 field added/edited/deleted.
Complete Update on 08/09/2001, 1 field added/edited/deleted.
Complete Update on 02/02/2000, 1 field added/edited/deleted.
Complete Update on 09/21/1999, 1 field added/edited/deleted.
Complete Update on 08/26/1999, 1 field added/edited/deleted.
Complete Update on 06/02/1998, 1 field added/edited/deleted.
Complete Update on 03/25/1998, 5 fields added/edited/deleted.
Field Update on 02/25/1998, 1 field added/edited/deleted.
Field Update on 05/01/1997, 2 fields added/edited/deleted.
Complete Update on 02/26/1997, 1 field added/edited/deleted.
Complete Update on 01/19/1996, 1 field added/edited/deleted.
Complete Update on 12/21/1994, 1 field added/edited/deleted.
Complete Update on 05/05/1994, 1 field added/edited/deleted.
Complete Update on 03/25/1994, 1 field added/edited/deleted.
Field update on 12/13/1992, 1 field added/edited/deleted.
Complete Update on 05/29/1991, 35 fields added/edited/deleted.
Complete Update on 10/10/1990, 1 field added/edited/deleted.
Field update on 03/06/1990, 1 field added/edited/deleted.
Complete Update on 04/13/1989, 1 field added/edited/deleted.
Complete Update on 04/30/1986


 


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